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Alternative terms: process report, supervision report, reflection report, self-evaluation report, log book

What is it?

Reflection is the interpretation and reinterpretation of knowledge and experiences in the light of the intended educational objectives/competencies:

  • You look back on experiences in particular learning and professional situations.
  • You investigate and interpret these experiences and your own role in them.
  • In this way, you attempt to structure/restructure your knowledge and experience.
  • You 'learn' from the experiences, i.e. you expand your insight or adjust your actions.
  • You report on these aspects.

This test can be used in both a formative and summative manner. This section is about the summative form of this testing format

What is tested?

The ability to critically examine your own actions in learning/practical situations and to further develop professional conduct:

  • The degree to which you have gained a realistic idea of how you compare with the intended educational objectives/competencies at a given moment in your degree programme.
  • The degree to which you can identify and distinguish factual and emotional aspects of the experiences and give meaning to these aspects.
  • Your level of insight into your learning methods (learning and working processes).
  • Your ability to work and learn independently.
  • The degree to which you – based on your reflection – can establish personal objectives for further development with regard to the intended educational objectives/competencies.
  • The degree to which you are capable of clearly and unambiguously articulating the above aspects (orally or in writing).

How will I be tested?

Assessment can take place based on reports: video, log book, portfolio etc. Another possibility is an interview based on a report.

How will I be assessed?

  • How clearly can you articulate what you have learned in study/practical situations?
  • To what degree have you satisfied the assessment criteria by means of the report and/or interview?
  • The examiner will give you feedback on his/her findings.
  • The examiner will determine the assessment based on the assessment protocol for the reflection assignment, in which the assessment criteria, weighting and standards are recorded

What feedback will I receive?

You will receive feedback on:

  • The degree to which you have satisfied the educational objectives.
  • Personal objectives that you set for yourself.
  • The examiner will provide you with oral and/or written feedback.

How do I prepare for the test?

  • Ensure you are clear about the educational objectives/competencies so you know exactly what you must reflect upon.
  • Ensure you have a clear picture of what is expected of you with regard to both content and layout.
  • Take maximum advantage of every opportunity to practise.
  • Ask for good examples.
  • Ask for extra guidance if you have difficulty with reflection.

How can I achieve the highest score possible?

You should ask yourself the following questions:

  • What have your educational objectives yielded?
  • Did you get the feeling that you were lacking particular knowledge or expertise?
  • Were you able to include all of your competencies?
  • When and where did you achieve success and when and where did things go wrong?
  • Did you encounter any conflict?
  • What helped or hindered you?
  • What would you do differently next time?
  • Talk to lecturers, fellow students, family and friends about your work attitude.
  • Formulate your work carefully and ensure correct spelling and grammar.


  • Reflection is not a skill that you can pick up in a day. It is something that will develop over time as you make progress with your programme.
  • The best way to learn to reflect is simply to practise as often as possible and avoid skipping any steps.
  • It can help to keep a diary when working on a project or during the course of an internship. At the end of each day, briefly note down what you experienced, what went well, what went wrong, and how it made you feel.
  • You can find countless online tests that help you gain greater insight into yourself and your method of learning and working. Not only are these tests very useful, they are also fun to do! Another enjoyable way to do this is to get together with fellow students one evening and compare results. One example of such a website is

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